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Master glossary: Social Networks - bias & media literacies

This is not so much a post as a home for glossaries to be posted in the comments. Thank you for your submissions and I hope that you are able to use this collective resource.

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  1. chickclique 24 November 2020

    Credibility – the fact that someone can be believed or trusted (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/credibility)
    Disseminate – to spread or give out something, especially news, information, ideas, etc., to a lot of people (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/disseminate)
    Echo chambers – a room or space in which sound echoes (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/echo-chamber)
    Exasperation – the feeling of being annoyed, especially because you can do nothing to solve a problem (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/exasperation)
    Filter-bubble – a situation in which someone only hears or sees news and information that supports what they already believe and like, especially a situation created on the internet as a result of algorithms (= sets of rules) that choose the results of someone’s searches (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/filter-bubble)
    Fractious – easily upset or annoyed, and often complaining (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/fractious)
    Generate – to cause something to exist (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/generate)
    Grassroots movement – one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grassroots#:~:text=A%20grassroots%20movement%20is%20one,%2C%20national%2C%20or%20international%20level.)
    Hip – knowing a lot about what the most modern fashions are, esp. in music, social behavior, and styles of clothes (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/hip)
    Homogeneity bias – assumption that the members of other groups are very similar to each other, particularly in contrast to the assumed diversity of the membership of one’s own group (https://dictionary.apa.org/outgroup-homogeneity-bias)
    Hyperpartisan – Extremely partisan; extremely biased in favor of a political party (https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hyperpartisan)
    Litigate – to ask for a disagreement to be discussed in a court of law so that a judgment can be made that must be accepted by both sides in the argument (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/litigate)
    Lucrative – (especially of a business, job, or activity) producing a lot of money (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/lucrative)
    Meme – an idea, image, video, etc. that is spread very quickly on the internet (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/meme)
    Prevalence – the fact that something is very common or happens often (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/prevalence)
    Pseudoscience – statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudoscience)
    Pundit – a person who knows a lot about a particular subject and is therefore often asked to give an opinion about it (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/pundit)
    Ramification – the possible results of an action (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ramification)
    Riddle – to make a lot of holes in something (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/riddle)
    Societal – relating to or involving society (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/societal)
    Speculate – to guess possible answers to a question when you do not have enough information to be certain (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/speculate)
    Tailored message – customized per each individual and lacks the generic text (https://www.creativespot.com/targeting-vs-tailoring-a-how-to/)
    Ubiquitous – seeming to be everywhere (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ubiquitous)

  2. plusone 24 November 2020

    *conspiracy theory – a theory that rejects the standard explanation for an event and instead credits a covert group or organization with carrying out a secret plot
    https://www.dictionary.com/browse/conspiracy-theory
    *clickbait – something (such as a headline) designed to make readers want to click on a hyperlink especially when the link leads to content of dubious value or interest
    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/clickbait
    *hyperpartisan – extremely partisan; extremely biased in favor of a political party
    https://www.yourdictionary.com/hyperpartisan
    *lucrative – producing a lot of money (especially of a business, job, or activity)
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/lucrative
    *viral – used to describe something that quickly becomes very popular or well known by being published on the internet or sent from person to person by email, phone, etc
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/viral
    *indicator – something that shows what a situation is like
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/indicator
    *mainstream – something to make a particular idea or opinion accepted by most people
    https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/mainstream_3
    *bias – the action of supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way, because of allowing personal opinions to influence your judgment
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/bias
    *disseminate – to spread or give out something, especially news, information, ideas, etc., to a lot of people
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/disseminating
    *misinformation – incorrect or misleading information
    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/misinformation
    *disinformation – false information spread in order to deceive people
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/disinformation
    *to drill down – to look at or examine something in depth
    https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/drill-down
    *dense – having parts that are close together so that it is difficult to go or see through
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/dense
    *bot – a computer program that works automatically, especially one that searches for and finds information on the internet
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/bot
    *algorithm – a series of mathematical steps, especially in a computer program, which will give you the answer to a particular kind of problem or question
    https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/algorithm
    *irrespective -without considering; not needing to allow for https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/irrespective
    *astroturfing – organized activity that is intended to create a false impression of a widespread, spontaneously arising, grassroots movement in support of or in opposition to something (such as a political policy) but that is in reality initiated and controlled by a concealed group or organization (such as a corporation)
    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/astroturfing
    *cognitive – connected with thinking or conscious mental processes
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/cognitive
    *information overload – a situation in which you receive too much information at one time and cannot think about it in a clear way
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/information-overload
    *feed – the place to view the posts that are created and shared by the people, groups, or pages you follow on social media
    https://knowledgebase.constantcontact.com/articles/KnowledgeBase/6260-definition-of-common-social-media-terms?lang=en_US

  3. ml 24 November 2020

    Systems thinking – a holistic approach to analysis that focuses on the way that a system’s constituent parts interrelate and how systems work over time and within the context of larger systems
    Gell-mann amnesia – when experts forget how badly their own subject is treated in media and believe that subjects they don’t know much about are treated more competently by the same media
    Bias – the action of supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way, because of allowing personal opinions to influence your judgment
    Countervailing – having equal force but an opposite effect
    Antebellum – relating to the time before a war, especially the American Civil War
    Cancel culture – a way of behaving in a society or group, especially on social media, in which it is common to completely reject and stop supporting someone because they have said or done something that offends you
    Demystify – to make something easier to understand
    Oligopoly – a situation in which a small number of organizations or companies has control of an area of business, so that others have no share
    Receptivity – ability and willingness to take in information or ideas
    Superficiality – the fact of seeming to be good or important, but of having no real value
    To blunder – to move in an awkward way; to make a serious mistake, usually because of not taking care or thinking
    Exceptionalism – the idea that a person, country, or political system can be allowed to be different from, and perhaps better than, others
    To trounce – to defeat a competitor by a large amount
    To commodify – to treat or consider something as a commodity
    Ostensibly – in a way that appears or claims to be one thing when it is really something else
    Prescient – knowing or suggesting correctly what will happen in the future
    To jettison – to get rid of something or someone that is not wanted or needed
    To imbue – to fill something or someone with a particular feeling, quality, or idea
    Clandestine – planned or done in secret, especially describing something that is not officially allowed
    Lackadaisical – showing little enthusiasm and effort
    To ensnare – to catch or get control of something or someone
    Surveillance Technology Oversight Project (STOP) – is a novel public interest, advocacy, and legal services organization, addressing state and local officials’ growing use of surveillance technologies

  4. Tesla 24 November 2020

    *Astroturfing*- the practice of a company creating positive comments about their product or service or paying for them to be published, when these appear to come from ordinary members of the public; retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/astroturfing
    *Cognitive bias*- the way a particular person understands events, facts, and other people, which is based on their own particular set of beliefs and experiences and may not be reasonable or accurate; retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/cognitive-bias
    *Confirmation bias*- the tendency to process information by looking for, or interpreting, information that is consistent with one’s existing beliefs; retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/science/confirmation-bias
    *Credibility*- the fact that someone can be believed or trusted; retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/credibility
    *Defame*- to damage the reputation of a person or group by saying or writing bad things about them that are not true; retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/defaming
    *Demystify*- to make something easier to understand; retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/demystify
    *Devolve*- to pass on (something, such as responsibility, rights, or powers) from one person or entity to another; retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/devolve
    *Disseminate*- to spread or give out something, especially news, information, ideas, etc., to a lot of people; retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/disseminate
    *Echo chambers*- an environment in which a person encounters only beliefs or opinions that coincide with their own, so that their existing views are reinforced and alternative ideas are not considered; retrieved from: https://www.lexico.com/definition/echo_chamber
    *Filter Bubble*- the intellectual isolation that can occur when websites make use of algorithms to selectively assume the information a user would want to see, and then give information to the user according to this assumption; retrieved from: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/28556/filter-bubble
    *Grassroots movement*- type of movement or campaign that attempts to mobilize individuals to take some action to influence an outcome, often of a political nature; retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/topic/grassroots
    *Hyperpartisan*- extremely partisan; extremely biased in favor of a political party; retrieved from: https://definition.org/define/hyperpartisan/
    *Irrespective of*- not taking (something) into account; regardless of; retrieved from: https://www.lexico.com/definition/irrespective
    *Lucrative*- producing a lot of money; retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/lucrative
    *Pretension*- a claim or belief that you can succeed or that you are important or have serious value; retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/pretension
    *Simulate*- to do or make something that looks real but is not real; retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/simulate
    *Social bot*- a software program that simulates human behavior in automated interactions on social network sites such as Facebook and Twitter; retrieved from: https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/socialbot
    *Tumultuous*- very loud, or full of confusion, change, or uncertainty; retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/tumultuous

  5. Milena 25 November 2020

    Glossary, week 7:
    Gell-mann amnesia effect = is when experts forget how badly their own subject is treated in media and believe that subjects they don’t know much about are treated more competently by the same media. (https://www.google.com/search?q=gell-mann+amnesia+definition&rlz=1C5CHFA_enRS922RS922&oq=gell-mann+amnesia+definition&aqs=chrome..69i57.10912j1j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8)
    Second modernity = is a phrase coined by the German sociologist Ulrich Beck, and is his word for the period after modernity. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_modernity)
    Oligopoly = a market situation in which each of a few producers affects but does not control the market. (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/oligopoly)
    Filter-bubble = is a state of intellectual isolation that allegedly can result from personalized searches when a website algorithm selectively guesses what information a user would like to see based on information about the user. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filter_bubble#:~:text=A%20filter%20bubble%20%E2%80%93%20a%20term,as%20location%2C%20past%20click%2Dbehavior)

  6. maverick 25 November 2020

    Cyber warfare – the activity of using the internet to attack a country’s computers in order to damage things such as communication and transport systems or water and electricity supplies.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/cyber-warfare)

    Pitfall – a likely mistake or problem in a situation.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/pitfall)

    Calm technology – a type of information technology where the interaction between the technology
    and its user is designed to occur in the user’s periphery rather than constantly at the center of attention.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calm_technology)

    Techne – the principles or methods employed in making something or attaining an objective.
    (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/techne)

    Far-flang – used to refer to places that are a great distance away, or something that is spread over a very large area.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/far-flung)

    Data breach – the intentional or unintentional release of secure or private/confidential information to an untrusted environment.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_breach)

    Ulterior motive – a hidden reason for doing something.
    (https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/ulterior-motive)

    Mounting evidence – ​increasing evidence, often in a manner that causes or expresses worry.
    (https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/mounting_1)

  7. ml 25 November 2020

    Systems thinking – a holistic approach to analysis that focuses on the way that a system’s constituent parts interrelate and how systems work over time and within the context of larger systems
    Bias – the action of supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way, because of allowing personal opinions to influence your judgment
    Countervailing – having equal force but an opposite effect
    Antebellum – relating to the time before a war, especially the American Civil War
    Cancel culture – a way of behaving in a society or group, especially on social media, in which it is common to completely reject and stop supporting someone because they have said or done something that offends you
    Receptivity – ability and willingness to take in information or ideas
    Superficiality – the fact of seeming to be good or important, but of having no real value
    To blunder – to move in an awkward way; to make a serious mistake, usually because of not taking care or thinking
    Exceptionalism – the idea that a person, country, or political system can be allowed to be different from, and perhaps better than, others
    To trounce – to defeat a competitor by a large amount
    To commodify – to treat or consider something as a commodity
    Ostensibly – in a way that appears or claims to be one thing when it is really something else
    Prescient – knowing or suggesting correctly what will happen in the future
    To jettison – to get rid of something or someone that is not wanted or needed
    To imbue – to fill something or someone with a particular feeling, quality, or idea
    Clandestine – planned or done in secret, especially describing something that is not officially allowed
    Lackadaisical – showing little enthusiasm and effort
    To ensnare – to catch or get control of something or someone
    Surveillance Technology Oversight Project (STOP) – is a novel public interest, advocacy, and legal services organization, addressing state and local officials’ growing use of surveillance technologies

  8. Air Signs and a Sag 26 November 2020

    21st century skills – The term 21st century skills refers to a broad set of knowledge, skills, work habits, and character traits that are believed—by educators, school reformers, college professors, employers, and others—to be critically important to success in today’s world, particularly in collegiate programs and contemporary careers and workplaces. Generally speaking, 21st century skills can be applied in all academic subject areas, and in all educational, career, and civic settings throughout a student’s life (https://www.edglossary.org)

    Abolition – the act of ending an activity or custom officially https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Abortion – the intentional ending of a pregnancy https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Activism – the use of direct and noticeable action to achieve a result, usually a political or social one https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Ad revenue – Advertising revenue is the monetary income that individuals and businesses earn from displaying paid advertisements on their websites, social media channels, or other platforms surrounding their internet-based content. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising_revenue

    Amendment – a change or addition to the US constitution https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Amnesia – a medical condition that makes you unable to remember things https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Antebellum – relating to the time before a war, especially the American Civil War https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Antitrust – relating to efforts to prevent companies from working together to control prices unfairly or to create a monopoly (= a single company or group of companies that is the only supplier of something) https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Battleground – a place where an argument or competition is happening https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Behavior modification – the process of changing patterns of human behavior over the long term using various motivational techniques, mainly consequences (negative reinforcement) and rewards (positive reinforcement). The ultimate goal is to swap objectionable, problematic, or disagreeable behaviors with more positive, desirable behaviors https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/behavior/what-is-behavior-modification-psychology-definition-techniques-applications/

    Black Power – a political slogan and a name which is given to various associated ideologies which aim to achieve self-determination for people of African descent. It is primarily, but not exclusively, used by African American activists and proponents of what the slogan entails in the United States. The Black Power movement was prominent in the late 1960s and early 1970s, emphasizing racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture, promote and advance what was seen by proponents of the movement as being the collective interests and values of Black Americans https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Power

    Capitalism – an economic, political, and social system in which property, business, and industry are privately owned, directed towards making the greatest possible profits for successful organizations and people https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Civil rights – the rights that each person has in a society, whatever their race, sex, or religion https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Civil war – a war fought by different groups of people living in the same country https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Clash – to fight or argue https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Cognitive bias – a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment. Individuals create their own “subjective reality” from their perception of the input. An individual’s construction of reality, not the objective input, may dictate their behavior in the world. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_bias

    Complexity – the state of having many parts and being difficult to understand or find an answer to https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Connection – the act of joining or being joined to something else, or the part or process that makes this possible https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Constructive – If advice, criticism, or actions are constructive, they are useful and intended to help or improve something https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Contest – a competition to do better than other people, usually in which prizes are given https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Context – the situation within which something exists or happens, and that can help explain it https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Continuity – the fact of something continuing for a long period of time without being changed or stopped https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Coordinate – to make many different things work effectively as a whole https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Corporation – a large company or group of companies that is controlled together as a single organization https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Crichton – James. 1560–82, Scottish scholar and writer, called the Admirable Crichton because of his talents https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Critical reading – Critical reading means that a reader applies certain processes, models, questions, and theories that result in enhanced clarity and comprehension. There is more involved, both in effort and understanding, in a critical reading than in a mere “skimming” of the text. What is the difference? If a reader “skims” the text, superficial characteristics and information are as far as the reader goes. A critical reading gets at “deep structure” (if there is such a thing apart from the superficial text!), that is, logical consistency, tone, organization, and a number of other very important sounding terms. https://www.csuohio.edu/writing-center/critical-reading-what-critical-reading-and-why-do-i-need-do-it

    Critical thinking – the process of thinking carefully about a subject or idea, without allowing feelings or opinions to affect you https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Critique – a report that discusses a situation or the writings or ideas of someone and offers a judgment about the (noun); to give an opinion or judgment about a piece or work, book, film, etc. (verb) https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Cultural studies – Cultural studies is an innovative interdisciplinary field of research and teaching that investigates the ways in which “culture” creates and transforms individual experiences, everyday life, social relations and power (culturalstudies.web.unc.edu)

    Definition – a statement that explains the meaning of a word or phrase https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Demystify – to make something easier to understand https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Distort – to change the shape of something so that it looks strange or unnatural https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Diversity – the fact of many different types of things or people being included in something; a range of different things or people https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Dominant discourse – The word discursive is closely related to the word discourse, which refers to “communication of ideas”. In a society there are competing discourses (or narratives) regarding anything and everything such as feminism, racism, casteism, communalism, regionalism, economic development, democracy, governance, etc. These competing discourses struggle for dominance. Ultimately, one of the discourse emerges as dominant. This is known as discursive dominance. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discursive_dominance

    Editorial – an article in a newspaper that expresses the editor’s opinion on a subject of particular interest at the present time https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Empathy – the ability to share someone else’s feelings or experiences by imagining what it would be like to be in that person’s situation https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Equal Opportunity – The Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 is a United States federal law which amended Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (the “1964 Act”) to address employment discrimination against African Americans and other minorities https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equal_Employment_Opportunity_Act_of_1972

    Equal pay – the idea that different groups, for example men and women, should be paid the same amount of money for doing the same or similar jobs, rather than one group being paid more than another https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Ethos – the set of beliefs, ideas, etc. about the social behaviour and relationships of a person or group https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Exasperation – the feeling of being annoyed, especially because you can do nothing to solve a problem https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Expert – a person with a high level of knowledge or skill relating to a particular subject or activity https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Explicitly – in a way that is clear and exact https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Fallacy – an idea that a lot of people think is true but is in fact false https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Falsehood – a lie or a statement that is not correct https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Focal point – the thing that everyone looks at or is interested in https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Freedom Summer – or the Mississippi Summer Project, was a 1964 voter registration drive aimed at increasing the number of registered black voters in Mississippi https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/freedom-summer

    Gay rights – the legal and civil rights of gay people, especially the right to be treated without discrimination https://languages.oup.com/google-dictionary-en/
    Gell-Mann – US physicist, noted for his research on the interaction and classification of elementary particles(https://www.collinsdictionary.com/)

    Gell-mann effect – also called the Gell-Mann Amnesia Effect describes the phenomenon of an expert believing news articles on topics outside of their field of expertise even after acknowledging that articles written in the same publication that are within the expert’s field of expertise are error-ridden and full of misunderstanding. (https://loricism.fandom.com/wiki/Loricism_Wiki)

    Generate – to cause something to exist https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Implication – an occasion when you seem to suggest something without saying it directly https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Implicitly – in a way that is suggested but not communicated directly https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Inbox – a place on a computer where emails that are sent to you are kept https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Injustice – (an example of) a situation in which there is no fairness and justice https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Inquiry – (the process of asking) a question https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Institution – a large and important organization, such as a university or bank https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Interpret – to decide what the intended meaning of something is https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Irony – a situation in which something which was intended to have a particular result has the opposite or a very different result; the use of words that are the opposite of what you mean, as a way of being funny https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    It goes without saying – used to mean that something is obvious https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Javascript – a programming language commonly used in web development. It was originally developed by Netscape as a means to add dynamic and interactive elements to websites. While JavaScript is influenced by Java, the syntax is more similar to C and is based on ECMAScript, a scripting language developed by Sun Microsystems. JavaScript is a client-side scripting language, which means the source code is processed by the client’s web browser rather than on the web server. This means JavaScript functions can run after a webpage has loaded without communicating with the server. https://techterms.com/definition/javascript

    Marxism – a social, political, and economic theory that is based on the writings of Karl Marx https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Material – relating to physical objects or money rather than emotions or the spiritual world https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Meaning-making – in psychology, the process of how people construe, understand, or make sense of life events, relationships, and the self https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meaning-making

    Media literacy – encompasses the practices that allow people to access, critically evaluate, and create or manipulate media. Media literacy is not restricted to one medium https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_literacy

    Meme – 1. an element of a culture or system of behaviour passed from one individual to another by imitation or other non-genetic means https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Misinform – to tell someone information that is not correct https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Movement – a group of people with a particular set of aims https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Natural – normal or expected https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Net neutrality – Network neutrality, most commonly called net neutrality, is the principle that Internet service providers (ISPs) must treat all Internet communications equally, and not discriminate or charge differently based on user, content, website, platform, application, type of equipment, source address, destination address, or method of communication. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_neutrality

    Norm – an accepted standard or a way of behaving or doing things that most people agree with https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Nuanced – made slightly different in appearance, meaning, sound, etc. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Oblivion – the state of being completely forgotten https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Oligopoly – a situation in which a small number of organizations or companies has control of an area of business, so that others have no share https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Ongoing – continuing to exist or develop, or happening at the present moment https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Opinion Piece – an article in which the writer expresses their personal opinion, typically one which is controversial or provocative, about a particular issue or item of news https://languages.oup.com/google-dictionary-en/

    Outcome – a result or effect of an action, situation, etc. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Outlaws – to make something illegal or unacceptable https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Outraged – feeling anger and shock https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Overwork – to (cause someone to) work too much https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Ownership – the right or state of being an owner https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Perspective – a particular way of viewing things that depends on one’s experience and personality https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Plastic – artificial or false https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Polarization – the act of dividing something, especially something that contains different people or opinions, into two completely opposing groups https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Polarizing – to cause something, especially something that contains different people or opinions, to divide into two completely opposing groups https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Power – ability to control people and events https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Practices – something that is usually or regularly done, often as a habit, tradition, or custom https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Privacy – the right that someone has to keep their personal life or personal information secret or known only to a small group of people https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Profit – money that is earned in trade or business after paying the costs of producing and selling goods and services https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Progressive – progressive ideas or systems are new and modern, encouraging change in society or in the way that things are done https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Quaker – a member of a Christian group, called the Society of Friends, that does not have formal ceremonies or a formal system of beliefs, and is strongly opposed to violence and war https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Radical – believing or expressing the belief that there should be great or extreme social or political change https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Reasoning – the process of thinking about something in order to make a decision https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Receptivity – willingness to listen to and accept new ideas and suggestions https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Rechannel – to channel in a new or different way https://www.yourdictionary.com/rechannel

    Reconstruction period – the period after the US Civil War from 1863 to 1877 when the southern states were brought back into the nation https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Reddit – an American social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reddit

    Relational skills – Relational work skills is the term used to describe the ways in which professionals interact with each other https://work.chron.com/relational-skills-within-workplace-11791.html

    Republican – a supporter of government by elected representatives of the people rather than government by a king or queen https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Sage on the stage – a teaching method where a professor imparts knowledge by lecturing to their class. Students are expected to take notes, memorize and regurgitate this information on request with little feedback. The professor transmits their knowledge to students, who passively absorb the material. https://tophat.com/glossary/s/sage-on-the-stage/

    Second Modernity – a phrase coined by the German sociologist Ulrich Beck, and is his word for the period after modernity, where modernity broke down agricultural society in favour of industrial society, second modernity transforms industrial society into a new and more reflexive network society or information society (He 2012, 111 and 215) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_modernity

    Segregation – the policy of keeping one group of people apart from another and treating them differently, especially because of race, sex, or religion https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Shoshana Zuboff – is an American author, Harvard professor, social psychologist, philosopher, and scholar. She is the author of the books In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power and The Support Economy: Why Corporations Are Failing Individuals and the Next Episode of Capitalism, co-authored with James Maxmin. The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power, integrates her lifelong themes: the digital revolution, the evolution of capitalism, the historical emergence of psychological individuality, and the conditions for human development. Zuboff’s work is the source of many original concepts including ‘surveillance capitalism’, ‘instrumentarian power’, ‘the division of learning in society’, ‘economies of action’, ‘the means of behavior modification’, ‘information civilization’, ‘computer-mediated work’, the ‘automate/informate’ dialectic, ‘abstraction of work’ and ‘individualization of consumption’. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoshana_Zuboff

    Sign – a written or printed mark that has a standard meaning https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Slack – a proprietary business communication platform developed by American software company Slack Technologies. Slack offers many IRC-style features, including persistent chat rooms (channels) organized by topic, private groups, and direct messaging https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slack_(software)

    Slavery – the activity of legally owning other people who are forced to work for or obey you https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Smolder – to exist in a state of suppressed activity https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Solidarity – agreement between and support for the members of a group, especially a political group https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Speculate – to guess possible answers to a question when you do not have enough information to be certain https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Stem from – to start or develop as the result of something https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Struggle – to experience difficulty and make a very great effort in order to do something https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Superficiality – the fact of never thinking about things that are serious or important https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Surveillance – the careful watching of a person or place, especially by the police or army, because of a crime that has happened or is expected https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Symbol – a sign, shape, or object that is used to represent something else https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Systems inquiry – Systems inquiry is inquiry to understand systems, especially the whole of complex systems. The methods used to conduct systems inquiry are referred to as inquiring systems, processes to ascertain the truth of the whole. (https://managingresearchlibrary.org/)

    Testimony – (an example of) spoken or written statements that something is true, especially those given in a law court https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    The 1619 Project – an ongoing project developed by The New York Times Magazine in 2019 which “aims to reframe the country’s history by placing the consequences of slavery and the contributions of black Americans at the very center of [the United States’] national narrative”(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page)

    The big/bigger picture – the most important facts about a situation and the effects of that situation on other things https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    To arrive at something – to reach an agreement about something (meaning) https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Trustworthy – able to be trusted https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Utopia – a perfect society in which people work well with each other and are happy https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Vague – not clearly expressed, known, described, or decided https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Variety – the characteristic of often changing and being different https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Witness – a person who sees an event happening, especially a crime or an accident https://dictionary.cambridge.org/

    Woman’s rights – the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and they formed the basis for the women’s rights movement in the 19th century and the feminist movements during the 20th and 21st centuries https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_rights

  9. Winx 27 November 2020

    Surveillance capitalism – an economic system centered around the commodification of personal data with the core purpose of profit-making. Since personal data can be commodified it has become one of the most valuable resources on earth.
    ( https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveillance_capitalism)

    Mainstream media – forms of the media, especially traditional forms such as newspapers, television, and radio rather than the internet, that influence large numbers of people and are likely to represent generally accepted beliefs and opinions.
    (https://www.google.com/amp/s/dictionary.cambridge.org/amp/english/mainstream-media)

    Social media – websites and computer programs that allow people to communicate and share information on the internet using a computer or mobile phone.
    (https://www.google.com/amp/s/dictionary.cambridge.org/amp/english/social-media)

    Algorithm – a set of mathematical instructions or rules that, especially if given to a computer, will help to calculate an answer to a problem.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/algorithm)

    Partisan – strongly supporting a person, principle, or political party, often without considering or judging the matter very carefully.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/partisan)

    Bipartisan – supported by or consisting of two political parties.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/bipartisan)

    Prevalence – that fact that something is very common or happens often.
    (https://www.google.com/amp/s/dictionary.cambridge.org/amp/english/prevalence)

    Ramification – the possible results of an action.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ramification)

    Credibility – the fact that someone can be believed or trusted.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/credibility)

    Exasperation – the feeling of being annoyed, especially because you can do nothing to solve a problem.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/exasperation)

    Superficiality – the fact of never thinking about things that are serious or important.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/superficiality)

    Hype – a situation in which something is advertised and discussed in newspapers, television, etc. a lot in order to attract everyone’s interest.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/hype)

    Polarized – divided into two completely opposed groups.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/polarized)

    Bias – the action of supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way, because of allowing personal opinions to allow your judgements.
    (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/bias)

    Clickbait – articles, photograps, etc. on the internet that are intended to attract attention and encourage people to click on links to particular websites.
    ( https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/clickbait)

  10. md 27 November 2020

    cognitive bias – a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_bias)
    perseverance – continued effort and determination (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/perseverance)
    countervailing – having equal force but an opposite effect (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/countervailing)
    demystify – to make something easier to understand (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/demystify)
    pseudo-science – a system of thought or a theory that is not formed in a scientific way (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/pseudo-science)
    information overload – a situation in which you receive too much information at one time and cannot think about it in a clear way (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/information-overload)
    viral – used to describe something that quickly becomes very popular or well known by being published on the internet or sent from person to person by email, phone, etc (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/viral)
    emotionally charged – filled with strong feelings or tension (https://www.lexico.com/definition/emotion-charged)
    filter bubble – a situation in which someone only hears or sees news and information that supports what they already believe and like, especially a situation created on the internet as a result of algorithms (= sets of rules) that choose the results of someone’s searches (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/filter-bubble)
    ubiquitous – seeming to be everywhere (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ubiquitous?q=ubiquitous%5C)
    fractious – easily upset or annoyed, and often complaining (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/fractious)
    exempt – to excuse someone or something from a duty, payment, etc. (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/exempt)
    exasperation – the feeling of being annoyed, especially because you can do nothing to solve a problem (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/exasperation)
    baloney – nonsense (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/baloney)
    expound – to give a detailed explanation of something (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/expound)
    erroneous – wrong or false (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/erroneous)
    cornucopia – a large amount or supply of something (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/cornucopia)
    jittery – nervous (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/jittery)
    fallacy – an idea that a lot of people think is true but is in fact false (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/fallacy?q=fallacies)
    flurry – a sudden, short period of activity, excitement, or interest (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/flurry)
    deflection – a change of direction, or the act of preventing something being directed at you (https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/deflection)

  11. djaks 28 November 2020

    1. ACTIONABLE- If something is actionable, it gives someone a good reason for accusing someone in a law court.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/actionable?q=actionable+

    2. ADAPTABILITY- an ability or willingness to change in order to suit different conditions.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/adaptability

    3. BOUND UP-closely connected or involved.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/bound-up

    4. CULTURE- the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/culture?q=culture+

    5. CONSTRUCTIVE- intended to help someone or improve understanding.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/constructive?q=constructive+

    6. AMNESIA-a medical condition that makes you unable to remember things.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/amnesia?q=Amnesia

    7. EXASPERATION- the feeling of being annoyed, especially because you can do nothing to solve a problem.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/exasperation

    8. SUPERFICIALITY- the fact of never thinking about things that are serious or important.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/superficiality

    9. COUNTERVAILING-having equal force but an opposite effect.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/countervailing

    10. SLAVERY- the activity of legally owning other people who are forced to work for or obey you.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/slavery

    11. QUAKER- a member of a Christian group, called the Society of Friends, that does not have formal ceremonies or a formal system of beliefs, and is strongly opposed to violence and war.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/quaker

    12. ABOLITION- the act of ending an activity or custom officially.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/abolition

    13. ANTEBELLUM- relating to the time before a war, especially the American Civil War.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/antebellum

    14. COMPLEXTY- the state of having many parts and being difficult to understand or find an answer to.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/complexity

    15. ONGOING- continuing to exist or develop, or happening at the present moment.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ongoing

    16. RADICAL ACTIVISM/ MOVEMENT- The Radical Movement (French: Mouvement radical, MR), whose complete name is Radical, Social and Liberal Movement (French: Mouvement radical, social et libéral) is a social-liberal political party in France.
    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radical_Movement

    17. DISCOURSE-a speech or piece of writing about a particular, usually serious, subject.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/discourse

    18. THE PRIVATE SECTOR- businesses and industries that are not owned or controlled by the government.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/private-sector

    19. ALGORHITM-a list of instructions for solving a problem.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/algorithm

    20. INDUSTRIALIZATION-the process of developing industries in a country.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/industrialization

    21. INDIVIDUALISM-the idea that freedom of thought and action for each person is the most important quality of a society, rather than shared effort and responsibility.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/individualism?q=individualism+

    22. COORDINATION- the act of making all the people involved in a plan or activity work together in an organized way.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/coordination

    23. RECEPTIVENESS-willingness to listen to and accept new ideas and suggestions.
    Source: https://dictionar25. y.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/receptiveness?q=RECEPTIVITY
    24. CAPACITY- the total amount that can be contained or produced.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/capacity

    25. INFERIOR-not good, or not as good as someone or something else.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/inferior?q=INFERIOR

    26. EMPATHY-the ability to share someone else’s feelings or experiences by imagining what it would be like to be in that person’s situation.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/empathy

    27. INPUT- something such as energy, money, or information that is put into a system, organization, or machine so that it can operate.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/input

    28. RELEVANT- connected with what is happening or being discussed.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/relevant

    29. DEMYSTIFY-to make something easier to understand.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/demystify

    30. REPRESENTATION-a person or organization that speaks, acts, or is present officially for someone else.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/representation

    31. INBOX-a place on a computer where emails that are sent to you are kept.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/inbox

    32. ADVERTISEMENT- a picture, short film, song, etc. that tries to persuade people to buy a product or service, or a piece of text that tells people about a job, etc.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/advertisement

    33. CAPITALISM- an economic, political, and social system in which property, business, and industry are privately owned, directed towards making the greatest possible profits for successful organizations and people.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/capitalism

    34. VARIETY-the characteristic of often changing and being different.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/variety

    35. NEGOTIATION- the process of discussing something with someone in order to reach an agreement with them, or the discussions themselves.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/negotiation

    36. BATTLEGROUND- a place where an argument or competition is happening.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/battleground

    37. CRITIQUE-a report of something such as a political situation or system, or a person’s work or ideas, that examines it and provides a judgment, especially a negative one.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/critique

    38. REVENUE- the income that a government or company receives regularly.
    Source: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/revenue

  12. miths 28 November 2020

    to disseminate – spread (something, especially information) widely
    to contest – engage in competition to attain (a position of power)
    bound up – closely connected or involved
    countervailing -offsetting an effect by countering it with something of equal force
    antebellum -occurring or existing before a particular war, especially the US Civil War
    oligopoly -a state of limited competition, in which a market is shared by a small number of producers or sellers
    to perforate -pierce and make a hole or holes in
    to ream – to widen the opening of (a hole)
    partisan – a strong supporter of a party, cause, or person
    a grassroots movement – A grassroots movement is one that uses the people in a given district, region or community as the basis for a political or economic movement
    astroturfing – he deceptive practice of presenting an orchestrated marketing or public relations campaign in the guise of unsolicited comments from members of the public
    ubiquitous – present, appearing or found everywhere
    specious – superficially plausible, but actually wrong; misleading in appearance, especially misleadingly attractive
    pundit – an expert in a particular subject or field who is frequently called upon to give their opinions to the public

  13. kat 28 November 2020

    1.John Dewey-an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.He was one of the most prominent American scholars in the first half of the twentieth century.

    2.systems inquiry-is an inquiry to understand systems, especially the whole of complex systems.The methods used to conduct systems inquiry are referred to as inquiring systems, processes to ascertain the truth of the whole.

    3.critical thinking-the objective evaluation and analysis of an issue in order to form a judgment.

    4.to generate-to create

    5.to disseminate-to spread or give something,especially news, information or ideas to a lot of people.

    6.to contest-to oppose(an action or theory)as mistaken or wrong.

    7.bound up-closely connected or involved.

    8.gell-man amnesia-the phenomenon of an expert believing news articles on topics outside of their field of expertise even after acknowledging that articles written in the same publication that are within the experts field of expertise are error-ridden and full of misunderstanding.The term was coined by author and film producer Michael Crichton.

    9.countervailing-offsetting an effect by countering it with something of equal force.

    10.demystified-to make(a difficult subject) clearer and easier to understand.

    K.T.

  14. jams 29 November 2020

    1. Hyperpartisan = extremely biased in favor of a political party.
    https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hyperpartisan#:~:text=hyper%2D%20%2B%E2%80%8E%20partisan-,Adjective,fierce%20disagreement%20with%20each%20other.

    2. Pseudo-science = a system of thought or a theory that is not formed in a scientific way.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/pseudo-science

    3. Lucrative = (especially of a business, job, or activity) producing a lot of money.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/lucrative

    4. Leaning = a particular set of beliefs, opinions, etc. that someone prefers.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/leaning

    5. To disseminate = to spread or give out something, especially news, information, ideas, etc., to a lot of people.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/disseminate

    6. Filter bubble = a situation in which someone only hears or sees news and information that supports what they already believe and like, especially a situation created on the internet as a result of algorithms (= sets of rules) that choose the results of someone’s searches.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/filter-bubble

    7. Ubiquitous = seeming to be everywhere.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ubiquitous

    8. Ramification = the possible results of an action.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ramification

    9. Gell-Man Amnesia = effect when experts forget how badly their own subject is treated in media and believe that subjects they don’t know much about are treated more competently by the same media.
    https://medium.com/@addictiondocMD/a-new-corollary-to-the-gell-mann-amnesia-effect-3578a37ed3e9#:~:text=So%2C%20in%20short%2C%20the%20Gell,competently%20by%20the%20same%20media.

    10. Antebellum = relating to the time before a war, especially the American Civil War.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/antebellum

    11. Abolitionist = a person who supported an end to slavery.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/abolitionist

    12. Speculation trading = refers to the act of conducting a financial transaction that has substantial risk of losing value but also holds the expectation of a significant gain or other major value.
    https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/speculation.asp#:~:text=In%20the%20world%20of%20finance,gain%20or%20other%20major%20value.

    13. Capitalism = free market economy in which most means of production are privately owned and production is guided and income distributed largely through the operation of markets.
    https://www.britannica.com/topic/capitalism

    14. Receptivity = the quality of being willing to listen to or to accept new ideas or suggestions synonym responsiveness.
    https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/receptivity#:~:text=%E2%80%8Breceptivity%20(to%20something)%20the,ideas%20or%20suggestions%20synonym%20responsiveness

    15. Ethos = the set of beliefs, ideas, etc. about the social behaviour and relationships of a person or group.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ethos

    16. Oligopoly = a situation in which a small number of organizations or companies has control of an area of business, so that others have no share.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/oligopoly

    17. Far-flung = used to refer to places that are a great distance away, or something that is spread over a very large area.
    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/far-flung

    18. Surveillance capitalism = an economic system centred around the commodification of personal data with the core purpose of profit-making.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveillance_capitalism

    19. Calm Technology = a type of information technology where the interaction between the technology and its user is designed to occur in the user’s periphery rather than constantly at the center of attention.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calm_technology#:~:text=Calm%20technology%20or%20Calm%20design,at%20the%20center%20of%20attention.

    20.Cyber warfare = refers to the use of digital attacks — like computer viruses and hacking — by one country to disrupt the vital computer systems of another, with the aim of creating damage, death and destruction.
    https://www.zdnet.com/article/cyberwar-a-guide-to-the-frightening-future-of-online-conflict/#:~:text=Cyberwarfare%20refers%20to%20the%20use,creating%20damage%2C%20death%20and%20destruction.

    21. Meme = an amusing or interesting item (such as a captioned picture or video) or genre of items that is spread widely online especially through social media.
    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/meme

    22. To disseminate = to spread abroad as though sowing seed.
    https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/disseminate

    23. Mainstream media = a term and abbreviation used to refer collectively to the various large mass news media that influence many people, and both reflect and shape prevailing currents of thought.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mainstream_media

    24. United States housing bubble = a real estate bubble affecting over half of the U.S. states; it was the impetus for the subprime mortgage crisis.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_housing_bubble

    25. Cottage industry = a small-scale, decentralized manufacturing business often operated out of a home rather than a purpose-built facility.
    https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/cottage-industry.asp#:~:text=A%20cottage%20industry%20is%20a,the%20number%20of%20people%20employed.

  15. j 1 December 2020

    Clickbait – articles, photographs, etc. on the internet that are intended to attract attention and encourage people to click on links to particular websites
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/clickbait

    Hyperpartisan
    1. Extremely partisan; extremely biased in favor of a political party.
    2. Sharply polarized by political parties in fierce disagreement with each other.
    Retrieved from: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hyperpartisan

    Cognitive – connected with thinking or conscious mental processes:
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/cognitive

    To disseminate – to spread or give out something, especially news, information, ideas, etc., to a lot of people
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/disseminate

    Echo chambers – metaphorical description of a situation in which beliefs are amplified or reinforced by communication and repetition inside a closed system and insulated from rebuttal
    Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echo_chamber_(media)

    Astroturfing – the practice of a company creating positive comments about their product or service or paying for them to be published, when these appear to come from ordinary members of the public
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/astroturfing

    Ubiquitous – existing or being everywhere, especially at the same time; omnipresent
    Retrieved from: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/ubiquitous

    Fractious – tending to argue, fight, or complain, and hard to control
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/fractious

    Ramification – the possible result of a decision or action
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/ramification

    Exempt – to excuse someone or something from a duty, payment, etc.
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/exempt

    Pundit – a person who knows a lot about a particular subject and is therefore often asked to give an opinion about it
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/pundit

    Litany – a long list spoken or given to someone, esp. to someone who has heard or seen it before or finds it boring
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/litany

    Erroneous – wrong or false
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/erroneous

    Putative – generally thought to be or to exist, even if this may not really be true
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/putative

    To ape – to copy something or someone badly and unsuccessfully
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/aping

    Disfavor – a feeling of dislike or disapproval
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/disfavor

    Cornucopia – a large amount or supply of something
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/cornucopia

    Superficiality – the fact of never thinking about things that are serious or important
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/superficiality?q=Superficiality

    Efficacy – the ability, especially of a medicine or a method of achieving something, to produce the intended result
    Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/efficacy

    SETI – short for Search for Extraterrestial Intelligence
    Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Search_for_extraterrestrial_intelligence