Intercultural Extraneity
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Virtual Community and Real Life Glossary 2

Memex – a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.
Retrieved from: http://www.invisiblerevolution.net/engelbart/full_62_paper_augm_hum_int.html
Hypertext – a software system allowing extensive cross-referencing between related sections of text and associated graphic material.
Retrieved from: https://www.lexico.com/definition/hypertext
Systems theory (also called social systems theory) – the study of society as a complex arrangement of elements, including individuals and their beliefs, as they relate to a whole (e.g., a country).
Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/topic/systems-theory
Homeostasis – any self-regulating process by which biological systems tend to maintain stability while adjusting to conditions that are optimal for survival.
Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/science/homeostasis
Self-reference – used to denote a statement that refers to itself or its own referent. The most famous example of a self-referential sentence is the liar sentence: “This sentence is not true.” Self-reference is often used in a broader context as well. For instance, a picture could be considered self-referential if it contains a copy of itself.
Retrieved from: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/self-reference/
System dynamics – a computer-aided approach to policy analysis and design. It applies to dynamic problems arising in complex social, managerial, economic, or ecological systems—literally any dynamic systems characterized by interdependence, mutual interaction, information feedback, and circular causality.
Retrieved from: https://www.systemdynamics.org/what-is-sd
Autopoiesis – the self-maintenance of an organized entity through its own internal processes; (in extended use) self-organization, self-regulation.
Retrieved from: https://www.lexico.com/definition/autopoiesis
Information theory – Information theory, a mathematical representation of the conditions and parameters affecting the transmission and processing of information.
Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/science/information-theory
Ant colony optimization (ACO) – takes inspiration from the foraging behavior of some ant species. These ants deposit pheromone on the ground in order to mark some favorable path that should be followed by other members of the colony. Ant colony optimization exploits a similar mechanism for solving optimization problems. (M. Dorigo, M. Birattari and T. Stutzle 2006:28-39) https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/4129846
Doomscrolling – the tendency to continue to surf or scroll through bad news, even though that news is saddening, disheartening, or depressing
Retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/words-at-play/doomsurfing-doomscrolling-words-were-watching
Meta-information – information about information, especially information used to order or locate other information; (specifically on the internet) the mark-up information on a web page, etc.
Retrieved from: https://www.lexico.com/definition/meta-information
Facetious – joking or jesting often inappropriately
Retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/facetious
Zettelkasten – comes from the German language and means a “box of notes”; as a concept, the Zettelkasten method involves capturing, storing and organizing information using a simple system of index cards. Retrieved from: https://medium.com/@taskade/the-zettelkasten-method-for-note-taking-in-collaborative-software-e0f5b6bb9302
Conceptual framework – illustrates what you expect to find through your research; it defines the relevant variables for your study and maps out how they might relate to each other.
Retrieved from: https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/conceptual-framework/
Coupled map lattices – a dynamical system with discrete time (“map”), discrete space (“lattice”), and a continuous state. It usually consists of dynamical elements on a lattice interacting (“coupled”) among suitably chosen sets of other elements.
Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-0172-2_10
*General systems theory*- the transdisciplinary study of the abstract organization of phenomena, independent of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scale of existence.
Retrieved from: a href=“http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/SYSTHEOR.html
To augment – to increase the size or value of something by adding something to it.
Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/augment
Augmenting human intellect – increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems.
Retrieved from: http://www.invisiblerevolution.net/engelbart/full_62_paper_augm_hum_int.html
Counterculture – a way of life and a set of ideas that are completely different from those accepted by most of society, or the group of people who live this way.
Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/counter-culture
Capital – money and possessions, especially a large amount of money used for producing more wealth or for starting a new business.
Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/capital
Graphical UI (graphical user interface) – a system of interactive visual components for computer software. A GUI displays objects that convey information, and represent actions that can be taken by the user. The objects change color, size, or visibility when the user interacts with them.
Retrieved from: https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/g/gui.htm
Organizational theory – the name given to a set of propositions that are constructed within the field of organisation science. It includes a study of organisations in practice, and from observation and research develops a body of knowledge that seeks to generalise on the way elements of an organisation interact as well as the way the organisation interacts with its environment
Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/computer-science/organisational-theory
Game theory – the mathematical theory of strategic interactions between self-interested agents. Game theory provides a range of models for representing strategic interactions, and associated with these, a family of solution concepts, which attempt to characterise the rational outcomes of games.
Retrieved from: https://www.cs.ox.ac.uk/teaching/courses/2018-2019/cgt/
Evolutionary game theory – originated as an application of the mathematical theory of games to biological contexts, arising from the realization that frequency dependent fitness introduces a strategic aspect to evolution evolutionary game theory has become of increased interest to economists, sociologists, and anthropologists—and social scientists in general—as well as philosophers.
Retrieved from: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/game-evolutionary/
Relational thinking – a way of approaching and understanding human systems through the lens of the relationships within those systems rather than the more familiar lenses of finance and politics. Examples of such systems are societies, education, justice, health and social care, environment, family structures, in fact any ‘system’ we are part of.
Retrieved from: https://www.thewholesystem.co.uk/relational-thinking/
Bounded rationality – the theory that people can understand only a limited amount of information within a limited amount of time, and for this reason they do not always make the best decisions, especially in complicated situations.
Retrieved from: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/bounded-rationality
Time series analysis – a statistical technique that deals with time series data, or trend analysis. Time series data means that data is in a series of particular time periods or intervals.
Retrieved from: https://www.statisticssolutions.com/time-series-analysis/
Phase space – a multidimensional space in which each axis corresponds to one of the coordinates required to specify the state of a physical system, all the coordinates being thus represented so that a point in the space corresponds to a state of the system.
Retrieved from: https://www.lexico.com/definition/phase_space
Bifurcation – the point or area at which something divides into two branches or parts; the state of being divided into two branches or parts.
Retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bifurcation
Multistable – composed of a number of interconnected or interdependent subsystems each of which can achieve stability independently of the others.
Retrieved from: https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/multistable

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